A number of learning taxonomies are commonly used to guide instruction, and
the common includes Bloom (1956) and Gagne (1985). The importance of
taxonomies is overwhelming as they provide structure for the rational intended
learning outcomes in any given situation. From learning outcomes, we are able to
analyze content and conduct effectively instruction. Though there are undoubtedly
several instructional methodologies proposed in the literature, one which can be
useful is the 4-point instructional process proposed by Alessi and Trollip (2001).

According to
Alessi and Trollip, the complete instructional process takes students
rough four stages. First, students are exposed to information or learning experiences.
Second, initial guidance is provided as the student struggles to understand the
information or execute the skill to be learned. Third,  extended practice is offered
so as to provide fluency or to ensure retention. Lastly, an assessment of student
learning is done for performance measurement and feedback purposes. This
model appears to be abbreviated version of Gagne's nine events.  

Gagné created a nine-step process called the events of instruction, which
address various conditions of learning. These nine steps can be very useful for
academic librarians in their design of instructional workshops, seminars and
classrooms to support their work in information literacy: In addition, the theory
outlines each contiguous instructional event and corresponding cognitive
  1. Gain attention of learners (reception)
  2. Inform learners of learning objectives (expectancy)
  3. Stimulate recall of prior learning (retrieval)
  4. Present the content (stimulus), and break it down into components
      to information overload (selective perception)
  5. Provide "learning guidance" (semantic encoding)
  6. Elicit performance (practice/ responding)
  7. Provide feedback to learners (reinforcement)
  8. Assess their performance (retrieval of information)
  9. Enhance knowledge retention and transfer to real-life, authentic work

Unlike Gagné's nine events, the model developed by Alessi and Trollip is more
refined and easy to use in planning and delivery meaningful instruction and effective
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